Contact cement is a good adhesive for rubber to metal. It’s a old fashion glue where you coat both sides and let it dry and then push them together with a good amount pressure and the glue bonds itself together. It’s strong stuff, but it can also be removed from non-porous surfaces. You can pickup a small glass bottle that has a brush applicator on the lid.
If you want something permanent, I would go with E6000. It will also adhere rubber to metal. It comes in a squeeze tube and looks kinda like silicone, but it dries hard. This stuff is only removed by cutting and scraping. It takes 1-2 days to fully harden, but it will be dry enough to handle after sitting overnight. You might want to find something to apply this with, like a popsicle stick or a plastic knife would work.
Both of these are thicker glues than super glue, so you want to be careful about applying too much, so one foot doesn’t stick up further than the others. Remove as much of the old glue as you can and maybe take a q-tip with a little isopropyl alcohol to make to sure no oils from your fingers left on both surfaces. You will also get better results by keeping some pressure against both parts to help them adhere.
You can pick both of these glues up at hardware stores, home improvement centers, auto parts, craft stores, or even Walmart if you’re in the US. Hope this helps you out.